The west’s wealth is based on slavery. Reparations should be paid

BY KEHINDE ANDREWS. The west is built on racism; and not in some abstract or merely historical way. Genocide of over 80% of the natives ...



BY KEHINDE ANDREWS.


The west is built on racism; and not in some abstract or merely historical way. Genocide of over 80% of the natives of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries paved the way for the enslavement of millions of African people and the conquest of the world by European powers. At one point Britain’s empire was so vast that it covered two-thirds of the globe, so large that the sun never set on the dominion. The scientific, political and industrial revolutions the British school system is so proud to proclaim, were only possible because of the blood, toil, and bounty exploited from the “darker nations” from across the globe. Colonialism left Africa, Asia and the Caribbean underdeveloped, as the regions were used to develop the west while holding back progress in what we now call the global south.

Any discussion of progress in racial equality in Britain or the rest of the world has to acknowledge the damage that the west has inflicted on the former colonies and their descendants. Malcolm X explained that “if you stick a knife in my back nine inches and pull it out six inches, that’s not progress. If you pull it all the way out, that’s not progress. The progress comes from healing the wound that the blow made”. Instead of attempting to fix the damage, we are completely unable to progress on issues of equality because countries such as Britain “won’t even admit the knife is there”.

It is the height of delusion to think that the impact of slavery ended with emancipation, or that empire was absolved by the charade of independence being bestowed on the former colonies. Descendants of enslaved Africans in the west find themselves subject to steep racial inequalities in every area of social life and are more likely to be killed by the state, as evidenced by the eruption of Black Lives Matter movements across the globe. This year marks 70 years since the partition of India and the region is still dealing with the consequences of British rule. The underdevelopment of the African continent continues with corrupt trade policies and the domination of the economy from the outside. One in 12 children dies in sub-Saharan Africa before their fifth birthday, in large part because the continent continues to be crippled by western “development”.

Make no mistake, the knife is still planted firmly in our backs and it is time we not only removed it, but healed the wound. The only way to do this is for reparations to be paid to wipe out the unmistakable debt the west owes.

Reparations have been routinely dismissed by British leaders, including David Cameron who told Jamaica that it was best to “move on” rather than expect so much as an apology. But as dismissive as Cameron was, there are plenty of precedents for the repayment of historical and economic debts.

Reparations were paid out by the British government after the abolition of slavery – albeit to the slave owners. So great was the loss of wealth from the exploitation of human flesh that the equivalent of £2bn was paid, which has now been tracked by researchers at UCL. In 1804, Haitians had the audacity to carry out the only ever successful slave rebellion and declared independence from France. One of their rewards was being forced to pay 90m French francs, from 1825, with the final payment only being made in 1947. Slavery was clearly a lucrative endeavour and one for which those who produced the wealth have never received any compensation.

It is not just governments that owe a debt; some of the biggest institutions and corporations built their wealth on slavery. Lloyds of London is one of Britain’s most successful companies and its roots lie in insuring the merchant trade in the 17th century. The fact that this was the slave trade has already led to civil action being taken by African Americans in New York. The church, many of the biggest banks, much of the ironworks industry and port cities gorged themselves on the profits from human flesh.

It is clear that it would be just to pay reparations, and it is also possible to calculate the amount that Britain and other nations owe. A lot of work has been done in the United States to determine the damages owed to African Americans. The figure owed comes to far more than the “forty acres and a mule” that were promised to some African Americans who fought in the civil war. The latest calculations from researchers estimates that for unpaid labour, taking into account interest and inflation, African Americans are owed anywhere between $5.9tn and $14.2tn.

It would not be prohibitively complicated to work out the debts owed by the western powers, or the companies that enriched themselves off exploitation. The obviousness of the issue is such that a federation of Caribbean countries (Caricom) is now demanding reparations, as is the Movement for Black Lives in America and Pan-Afrikan Reparations Coalition in Europe.

In many ways the calls for reparatory justice do not take go far enough. Caricom includes a demand to cancel third world debt, and the Movement for Black Lives for free tuition for African Americans. Both of these are examples of removing the knife from our backs, rather than healing the wound. Third world debt was an unjust mechanism for maintaining colonial economic control and; allowing free access to a deeply problematic school system will not eradicate the impacts of centuries of oppression. In order to have racial justice we need to hit the reset button and have the west account for the wealth stolen and devastation caused. Nothing short of a massive transfer of wealth from the developed to the underdeveloped world, and to the descendants of slavery and colonialism in the west, can heal the deep wounds inflicted.

Real reparatory justice would allow the developing world to build strong economies that could eradicate global poverty
We would need to perfect the mechanism for delivering this wealth transfer. Many governments in the developing world have as little interest in their native populations as the colonial administrations did, and sharing the money between individuals is the surest way to ensure that none of the issues are solved. But real reparatory justice would allow the developing world to build strong, sustainable economies that could eradicate global poverty. No one would need to live on less than a dollar a day and children would not die by the second. Racial equality at home would heal divisions between communities and absolve politicians from more handwringing.

There’s even something in it for the “little Englanders”. People are not risking their family’s lives crossing deserts and the Mediterranean on makeshift boats because they crave the British way of life. Migration to this bleary island would turn to a trickle if people could make a decent life in their homelands.

Of course there would be stark economic consequences for repaying this mountain of debt and no longer exploiting the developing world. But it is the time we admitted that society currently works to benefit the few, and a rethink of how wealth is distributed more generally is long overdue. A factory reset of the political and economic consensus, in the form of reparations, would lead to a radically different and potentially fairer world for all.

• Kehinde Andrews is associate professor in sociology at Birmingham City University. His research specialism is race and racism and is author of ‘Resisting Racism: Race, Inequality and the Black Supplementary School Movement’ (2013) and co-editor of ‘Blackness in Britain’ (2016)

COMMENTS

InfoLinks

Name

#IstandWithBolaTinubu,1,#LindaIkeji,2,#Oshadipe,2,$28,1,10 facts from yester years.,1,1960BET,3,2011 ELECTION IN NIGERIA,1,2019 election.,1,5 Signs To Spot non-Ogbanje Girlfriend.,1,500,1,9jaSAFE Award,1,A VISIT TO A DENTIST IN GLASGOW,1,Abbey Paseda,1,AbikeDabiri,2,Abiola Ajimobi.,1,Abubakar Adam Ibrahim,1,Abuna Yemata Guh,1,Abundant Nigeria Renewal Party,1,AdebayoShittu,2,Adeboye,1,Adenike Khadijat Oluboyo.,1,Adeola Soetan.,2,ADMISSION SCANDAL ROCKS FGC IJANIKIN LAGOS.,1,ADP,1,Advanced Political Climatology,1,Advanced Political Climatology APC 307,1,African Development Bank Internship Program 2019,1,African journalism.,2,African restaurant in Scotland.,1,AfroGrams Ilesa,1,AhmadiyyaCentenary,1,AhmadiyyaMuslimCommunityGlasgow,3,Aisha DaniaOgieriakhi,1,AishaBuhari,2,AjibikeAbike,1,Ajimobi,3,Akinwunmi Ambode.,2,Akogun Olugbenga Omole,1,Akon,1,Akute-Alagbole,1,Alao Akala.,1,Alao Fadda.,1,Alhaji Ibrahim Adesina Adeyemi,3,ALISTAIR DARLING,1,Alistair Soyode,1,Alpha Beta,1,AlphaZero,1,Ambassador George Adesola Oguntade,1,Amber Rudd,1,Ambode,1,Amitolu Shittu.,1,AMOPE,1,An open letter to Late Ken Saro-Wiwa,1,AN OPEN LETTER TO MADAM LADITO,1,AN OPEN LETTER TO PROFESSOR ADAM ADEBAYO LASISI,1,Andela.,1,AnnaJames,1,ANRP,2,Anthony Joshua.,2,APC,9,APC 3017,1,APC KADUNA,1,APC307,2,ARIK AIR,1,Armedrobbery,1,Article50.,1,Arts exhibitions in Lagos NIGERIA.Terra Kulture.,1,ASO ROCK,1,ASSASSINATION,1,AsylumSeekers,1,AtikuAbubakar,2,Austin Okai,1,Autobiography.,1,Awolowo.,1,AyodeleFayose,1,BabaAyangba,1,Babalaje of Okofaji,1,Babatunde Gbadamosi,1,Babatunde Jose,1,Badoo cult,1,Basketmouth,1,Bayelsa,1,BDSF,1,Beko Ransome-Kuti,1,Benjamin Olowodola,1,BenTV,1,Biafra,1,Biafra.,1,Bike accident,1,Bill Cosby,1,BirthdayBonanza,1,BishopOyedepo,1,BisiAlimi,1,BitCoin,1,Black Ladder,1,Blogging,2,BLUE BABY SUPPORT INITIATIVE,2,Bobby Fischer,1,BobDylan,1,BobMarley,1,BOG,2,BOG Whistle-Blower,1,Boko Haram,4,BokoHaram,1,Bolanle Sobowale,1,BolaTinubu,4,Boris Johnson,1,Boss Gida Mustapha.,1,Bosun Emmanuel,1,Boundary of friendship,1,Boxing career,1,Brain-Dead President,1,Brain-dead racists,1,Breaking News in Chemistry,1,Breaking The Wall Of Silence,1,Brexit,4,Brexit in AFRICA,1,Bros Kongi @ 83,1,BROS KONGI @ 84,1,Buchi Emecheta.,1,Buhari,10,Buhari.,1,BuhariBiography,2,Buharists,1,Cambridge Analytica,2,CANADA,2,CarAccident,1,Carlos Takam,1,CBN,1,CCNA,1,Channels TV,1,Charles Mulli,1,Chatham House.,1,Chelsea Football Club,1,Chess,7,Chess in Nigeria,3,Chibokschoolgirls,2,Chief ABC,1,Chief Imam of Lagos,1,ChildAbuse,3,ChildBrideMarriage,2,China,1,China and Africans.,1,Chinua Achebe,1,Chris Grayling,1,CHRIST EMBASSY CHURCH,1,Christianity,2,Christians,1,CISCO,1,colon cancer.,1,Come To Nigeria magazine.,1,Comedian,1,Commonwealth countries.,1,Commonwealth media internship,1,ComputerVillage.,1,Congo,1,Corruption,1,CovenantUniversity,1,Critics,1,Cultism,1,CyberCrime,2,Cyril Ramaphosa,1,D.O Fagunwa,1,Daddy G.O of Nigerian Blogosphere.,1,Damian Green,1,Dangote,1,Daniel Aramide,1,Danku,1,Dare Lasisi,2,Darren Osborne,1,DAVID CAMERON,1,DavidMark,1,DAYO OLOMU FOUNDATION UK,1,Deborah Quickpen,1,DeleAlake,1,DELETING PEOPLE ON FACEBOOK.,1,DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY,1,Depression,1,Dino Melaye.,1,DNA TEST,2,Domestic Violence in Nigeria,1,Don Vaney,1,Don't disturb the King,1,DonaldTrump,3,Dotun Ajegbile,3,Dotun Oladipupo,1,DR BARU.,1,Dr Frederick Fasehun,1,Dr Joe Okei-Odumakin,1,Dr Raphael James,1,Dr.Joe Okei-Odumakin,1,DSS,1,DSTV,1,Dubai Chess Opens 2019,1,Ebola,2,Echoes of Jagunmólú,1,Edinburgh Kidnappers,1,Edinburgh Zoo,1,EFCC,5,Egunmogaji,1,Egunmogaji Blogger.,1,EkitiState,1,El-Rufai,1,Embargo on Cyber-begging.,1,Emir of Okuta,1,EmirKatsina,1,Emmanuel Chidubem,1,Eniola Ajao,1,ENVY,1,ERHUVWU BEAUTY OBIREH,1,Ese Oruru,1,Estonia.,1,Et tu Oyegun,1,Ethiopia,1,Ethiopian Airlines.,1,ETISALAT,2,EVANS,1,Fabiano Caruana,1,Facebook,1,Facebook scam,1,Falz,1,Famine,1,FaniKayode,1,FatlasImpressions,1,February 17,1,FELA ANIKULAPO-KUTI,2,FELA KUTI,3,FELABRATION IN LONDON.,1,Fellowships for students,1,Femi Falana,1,FemiAdesina,1,Festus Keyamo,1,FIDE,1,FidelCastro,2,First Class ABIYAMO,1,Flashback to dark days,1,Focus on Disability Charity,1,FOMWAN,1,football.,1,For Pius Adesanmi,1,For Southern Kaduna,1,Frank Nweke Jr,1,Fraud,2,Fraud.,1,FRC,1,Free £10,1,FreeBOGNow.,2,FreePress,1,Fresh FM Ibadan,1,Fuji Music,1,Fulani herdsmen killings in NIGERIA.,1,FUNAAB,1,FUTA,1,Gani Fawehinmi Scholarships.,1,Gani Fawehinmi @ 80,1,GaniRad,1,GariumSulphate,1,Garri,1,GayWedding,1,GbengaDaniel,1,GEJ@60,1,George Weah,1,GetInvolvedNow,1,GHANA,1,Gina Miller,1,Glasgow,4,Glasgow Music concert,1,Glasgow stories.,1,GOCOP,1,Goje,1,GOK GBOSA,1,GoodluckJonathan,4,Google NIGERIA,1,Google.,2,GoogleCrackdown,1,GORDON BROWN,1,Grammy.,1,Green Card,2,Gun violence in London.,1,Guru Maharaji,1,HabibaIsa,1,Hajj 2018,1,Harvey Weinstein,1,HATE CRIME,1,Hate Speech,1,Health Matters,1,Hillary Clinton.,2,Holy King,1,Holy King of the rock,1,Homosexuality,1,Hugh Hefner,1,Human rights in Nigeria,1,Humanity,1,Humanside on chess board.,1,I hate Poetry.,1,IbadanTragedy,1,Ibikunle Amosun,1,ICTUniversity,1,Igbo Irunmale,1,Igbo Olodumare,1,IMF,1,IMPORTANT TIPS FOR DELETING PEOPLE ON FACEBOOK.,1,INCREDIBLE JUNK STORIES FROM YESTER YEARS.,1,IndianGarri,1,Indyref2,1,InfoTech,2,Innoson Motors,1,Inside Molue,1,Internet fraud.,1,InternetOfThings,1,Inviterite,1,IPC102,1,iPhones,1,Iran.,1,Iriri Oyibo,1,ISHAYABAMAIYI,1,Islam,5,Islam in Nigeria.,1,Islam.,2,IT professionals.,1,IT.,1,Italy 26,1,James Bond.,1,James Ibori,3,Jen Miller.,1,Jenreviews,1,JimiAgbaje,2,Jimoh Ibrahim,1,Jo Cox,1,JohnPaden,2,JONATHAN,2,Journalism,1,Juju,1,June 12,1,June 12 struggles,1,JUNE 8.,1,Kaduna.,1,Kashamu,1,Kashamu Buruji.,1,KatsinaState,1,Kazu Ishiguro,1,KEMI ADEOSUN,2,Kemi Olunloyo,1,Ken Saro-Wiwa,1,Ken Saro-Wiwa Jr,1,Ken Saro-Wiwa.Shell BP,1,Kenya orphanages,1,Kidneys,1,KING OF ASO ROCK,1,Kudirat Abiola,1,Kufre Uwem,1,Kurdish People,1,Kwara state crimes.,1,Kwara state.,1,Lagos,3,Lagos Police,1,Lagos state,1,Lagos2015,1,LagosLife,1,Lasisi Oluboyo,1,LASTMA,1,Latin language,1,LAUTECH,1,Leicester,1,LEKAN FATODU,1,Lekki,1,LET'S SAY NO TO SUICIDE,2,Liberia,1,Libraries in Nigeria.,1,LindaIkeji,1,Literature,1,Liu Xiaobo,1,LIVING IN FOREIGN LAND IS NOT SO CHEAP,1,London sexual assault,1,London stories,1,London Terror Attack,1,LondonScandal,1,LOVE IN CANCUN,1,LTV,1,Lucky Oboh,2,Madam Ladito,1,Madness from Chatham House.,1,MagnusCarlsen,5,Mahfouz Adedimeji,1,Mama Gani Philosophy,1,Mama Gani.,2,Mama Taraba.,1,Mamoudou Gassama,1,Manchester Attack,1,Manchester Terrorism,1,Markaz Agege,1,MarkZuckerberg,2,Mary Magdalene,1,Maryam Mirzakhani,1,Mathematics Genius,1,Mayflower Ikenne.,1,MC OLUOMO,1,MDP,1,Me and my secret children.,1,Media,1,MedView Airline,1,MEET THE NIGERIAN PRINCESS OF CHESS,1,Meghan Markle,1,Mendel University.,1,Meningitis outbreak,1,MFM,1,MikeOmeri,1,military dictatorship,1,MindYourLanguage,1,Ministry of Health.,1,MKO Abiola.,1,MMM,2,Modern Democratic Party,1,Modiu Olaguro.,1,MOJI OLAIYA,1,MoneyLaundering,1,Monica Osagie.,1,Morgan Tsvangirai,1,Morocco,1,MPC LEKKI,1,MR ORIOLA,1,MSc Scholarship at Uppsala University,1,Mufti Menk,1,Muhammadu Buhari,4,Mully Children's Family,1,Muslims,1,My Burden,1,My Golden moment,1,My Mother,1,MY NYSC EXPERIENCE IN NIGER STATE,1,My Pen,1,My Power,1,My Random London Yabis,1,My Telephone Rules,1,My Troubled childhood As A Schoolboy.,1,My World,1,MyStory,1,NAFDAC,1,Naija BBQ Glasgow,1,NASFAT UK&IRELAND,1,Nasir El-Rufai,3,National Conscience Party.,1,Naughty Professor,1,NCC,1,NDLEA,1,NICK CLEGG,1,Nicola Sturgeon,2,Niger Delta,1,Nigeria,24,Nigeria High Commission.,1,Nigeria Village Square,1,Nigeria.,6,Nigeria.Tourism,1,Nigerian airports,1,Nigerian boxer,1,Nigerian Community Scotland,1,Nigerian Journalism,1,Nigerian passports,1,Nigerian politics,1,Nigerian Property Market,1,NIGERIAN WOMEN,1,NigerianMuslims,1,NigerianPassport,1,Nigerians and Hypocrisy,1,Nigerians in Chinese prisons,1,Nigerians in Scotland.,2,NigerianWriters,1,NLNG Award,1,NnamdiKanu,2,NNPC,1,NOA,1,Nobel Peace Prize.,1,NobelPrize,1,NOKIA 3310,1,Nollywood,2,Northern Ireland,1,Nottinghill carnival,1,NTDC,2,NYSC,6,NYSC EXEMPTION CERTIFICATE.,1,OAU sex scandal,1,Obafemi Awolowo University.,1,Obama,1,ObasanjoHilltop,1,Offa armed robbery,2,Offa Tragedy,1,Ogoni,1,Ogoni 9.,2,Okey Ndibe,1,Olalekan Lawal.,3,Olatunji Adedeji Odusan,1,OLISA METUH,1,Olubadan,2,Oludare Buraimoh,1,Oluwafemi Balogun,1,OmoniyiIbietan,1,Omoyele Sowore,1,Omoyele Sowore Town Hall Meeting in London.,1,Ondo state,1,OnlinePublishers,1,Onukaba,1,Ooni,1,OPC.,1,Ope Bademosi.,1,OPEN LETTER TO OGA MADAM,1,Oracle of scammer,1,Oracle of the cyberworld,1,Oran Mor.,1,Orebro University Scholarships.,1,Osinbajo,1,OtunbaGbengaDaniel.AdebolaDaniel,1,Oyo State,2,OZUBULU MASSACRE,1,Paddypaddybet,2,Pastor Adeboye,1,Pastor Joshua Shonubi,1,Pastor Victor Ajisafe,1,PastorRabalago,1,PaternityCrisis,1,Paul Moore,1,PayingEvilWithKindness,1,PAYLATER APP.,1,PAYPAL DONATIONS.,1,PDP,4,PDP.,1,PDP.APC.,2,Pepper-soup joint Glasgow.,2,PERMISSION TO FORGE AHEAD.,1,phone hackers,1,Pius Adebola Adesanmi,1,Plagiarism,2,PLAGIARISTS ARE SHAMELESS THIEVES!,1,PLEURAL EFFUSION,1,Police,1,Politics,1,PowerOfBook,1,Prayer City.,1,PressFreedom,1,Primary school early start,1,Prince Adelaja Adeoye,1,Prince Harry,1,PrinceAdemola Adeniji-Adele,1,PrinceOfHope,1,Prof Adebayo Adedeji,1,Prof Richard Akindele,1,Professor ADAM.,1,Professor Adebayo Adedeji,1,Professor Kingsley Chiedu Moghalu,1,PROFESSOR ORIOLA,1,Professor Sulyman Agenyo AbdulKareem,1,ProfPaden,1,PSN,1,PTDF,1,Qatar,1,Queen's University Belfast,1,RAAAF,1,Racism in Glasgow,1,Ramadan,2,Rape,2,Rasheed Gbadamosi,1,REBRANDING MY BLOGGING,1,Recession,1,Redeemer's University,1,religions in Nigeria.,1,Reno Omokri,1,ReubenAbati,2,Revd.Mother Esther Abimbola Ajayi.,1,Rhoyale Priesthood Food & Groceries UK LTD.,1,Richard Akindele,2,Rilwan Adesoji,1,Rio Ferdinand,1,RiversOfBlood,1,Robert Mugabe,1,Roger Moore,1,Room56.,1,Rotimi Akeredolu,1,Rotimi Makinde,1,RotimiAmaechi,1,Rwanda,1,Sahara Reporters,1,Sajod Javid,1,Sallah,2,SallyMbanefo,2,Salute to the Garium Sulphate!,1,Sani Abacha,2,Saudi Arabia,1,Scholarships for African students.,2,Scholarships in SCOTLAND,1,Scholarships.,1,SCOTLAND,8,SCOTLAND LAFESTA,1,SCOTLAND.,1,Scotland. OpenDay 2017,1,Scotland's indyref2,1,Scottish inventors,1,Segun Adelugba,1,Segun Onibiyo,1,Senator Ademola Adeleke,1,Senator KAKA,1,Seun Kuti,1,SeunEgbegbe,2,SEX SCANDAL,1,ShamelessNaijaWomen,1,Sheikh Abdullah Adam El-Ilory,1,Sheikh Adam Abdulahi Al-Ilory,1,Sheikh Garuba Akinola Ibrahim,1,Sheikh Muhydeen Ajani Bello,1,Shreyas Royal,1,Sickle cell,1,Sierra Leone tragedy,1,Sikiru Ayinde Barrister,1,Silhouette of Conscience,1,SonnyOkosun.,1,South Africa,1,Southern Kaduna,2,Soyinka.Amaechi,1,Stamford Bridge.,1,Starvation.,1,Stay Healthy,1,Stella,4,Stephen Hawking,1,Stockfish,1,StrangeFacts,1,Suicide.,1,Sule Lamido,1,Sultan of African Satire,1,Super Falcons,1,SwedishAcademy,1,Syrian crisis,1,Tai Solarin,1,TaiSolarin,1,Talking Dolls,1,Terrorism,1,TERRORISM.,1,The difference between a resume and a CV?,1,THE FALL OF A KING,1,The Flying King,1,THE GHOST MARKET WOMAN,1,the haunted lady,2,The Haunted Lady.,2,The Monitor.,1,The Narrow Escape,1,THE POWER OF A CURSE,1,The Trial of Brother Jagunmolu,1,The Trial of Brother Jagunmolu.,1,The Unknown Thief,1,The Yale Young African Scholars Program 2019,1,TheRangerApp,2,Theresa May,1,TheresaMay.,6,This is Nigeria.,1,Tinubu,1,Titanic Museum Belfast,1,Tony Elumelu,1,Tony Ezimakor,1,TSTV,1,TuFace Idibia,1,Tunde Bakare,2,Turkey,1,TY Danjuma Foundation,1,Tyler Dooley.,1,UCH,1,UCL,1,UK GENERAL ELECTION,1,UK Politics,2,UK.,1,UKdeportation,1,UKPolitics,1,Ulster Museum.,1,Umaru YarAdua,1,UNILAG,2,UNILORIN,5,UniMaid,1,UniSambisa,1,University of Dundee,2,University of Glasgow.,1,University of Ilorin,2,University of Ilorin.Centre for Peace and Strategic Studies,1,University of Sambisa,1,University Of Stirling,2,University of Tartu,1,UNKNOWN GUNMEN,1,UoS.,1,US Elections,1,US Lotto Jackpot,1,USA,1,UtakoMarketAbuja.,1,Victor Olabisi Onabanjo,1,Video Contest Scholarship,1,VP Yemi Osinbajo.,1,Wailing for the future,2,WailingWailers,2,Wande George,1,Wike.,1,Windrush scandal,1,Winnie Mandela,1,Wole Soyinka,8,Women Arise,1,World cup 2018 in Russia.,1,WTM,1,Xodus,1,Yahya Jammeh,1,Yemi OSINBAJO,2,Yinka Ayefele,1,Yinka Odumakin,1,Yinusa Owolabi Ramon,1,YPP.,1,Yusuf Buhari,2,Zahra Buhari.,1,Zambian cement,1,Zimbabwe,1,Zukabaga,1,Zulu Sofola.,1,
ltr
item
Welcome to Dare Lasisi's blog!: The west’s wealth is based on slavery. Reparations should be paid
The west’s wealth is based on slavery. Reparations should be paid
Welcome to Dare Lasisi's blog!
http://www.darelasisi.co.uk/2017/09/the-wests-wealth-is-based-on-slavery_2.html
http://www.darelasisi.co.uk/
http://www.darelasisi.co.uk/
http://www.darelasisi.co.uk/2017/09/the-wests-wealth-is-based-on-slavery_2.html
true
622867813627327551
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS CONTENT IS PREMIUM Please share to unlock Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy